Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers <p align="justify">Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality is an Open access scientific journal published by the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra and the M.M.Gryshko National Botanical Garden (NBG) of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in Kyiv, within the joint international network AgroBioNet. The Journal was formerly published as a serial with annual periodicity (proceedings of scientific papers) up to 2020 and from the year 2021 it is published in biannual periodicity (two issues per year).</p> en-US agrobiodiversity@uniag.sk (Olga Grygorieva) martin.lopusny@uniag.sk (Martin Lopusny) Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 3.3.0.5 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Comparative Evaluation of Oxidatively Modified Proteins in the Equine Plasma after Treatment with Extracts Derived from Leaves of Various Camellia japonica L. Cultivars http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/338 <p style="text-align: justify;">The main goal of the current study was to determine the antioxidant activity of leaf extracts of six <em>Camellia japonica</em> L. cultivars, using the biomarkers of protein oxidation [aldehydic and ketonic derivatives content] in the in vitro equine erythrocyte model. The leaves of <em>Camellia japonica</em> cultivars Kramer’s Supreme, C.M. Wilson, La Pace, Mrs. Lyman Clarke, Benikarako, Fanny Bolis plants cultivated under glasshouse conditions, were sampled at M.M. Gryshko National Botanic Garden (Kyiv, Ukraine). Freshly collected leaves were washed, weighed, crushed, and homogenized in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) (in proportion 1 : 19, w/w) for 2 min at room temperature. The extracts were then filtered and used for analysis after two weeks. A volume of 0.1 ml of the plant extracts was added to 1.9 ml of equine plasma. Phosphate buffer was used for positive control. After incubation of the mixture at 37 °C for 60 min with continuous stirring, it was centrifuged and plasma aliquots were used in the study. The aldehydic and ketonic derivatives content as a biomarker of protein oxidation was non-significantly altered after in vitro incubation with extracts obtained from the selected<em> Camellia japonica</em> cultivars. The percent of the increase had oscillated from 0.2 % (cv. Benikarako) to 2.4 % (cv. C.M. Wilson). Of the six plant extracts screened, <em>C. japonica</em> cv. La Pace exhibited the highest increase of the level of ketonic derivatives of oxidatively modified proteins (OMP) (by 15.3 %, p &gt;0.05). Cultivars C.M. Wilson, Kramer’s Supreme, Benikarako, Mrs. Lyman Clarke, and Fanny Bolis exhibited a non-significant increase of ketonic derivatives’ level by 10.8 %, 10.8 %, 7.6 %, 6.6 %, and 6.3 %, respectively. Some fluctuations in the protein oxidation profile in the plasma across different cultivars were found. Such differences could be related to the plant‘s metabolic state. Screening of <em>Camellia</em> species and their cultivars for other biological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities is essential and may be effective for searching the preventive agents in the pathogenesis of some metabolic diseases.</p> Halyna Tkachenko, Lyudmyla Buyun, Natalia Kurhaluk, Igor Kharchenko, Myroslava Maryniuk, Maryna Opryshko, Oleksandr Gyrenko Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/338 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Content of Anthocyanins and Flavonols in the Fruits of Cornus spp. http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/334 <p style="text-align: justify;">The genetic pool of the cornelian cherry (<em>Cornus mas</em> L.) at the M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden (NBG) of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine includes more than 100 specimens collected from wild and cultivated plants in Ukraine, and cultivars of Bulgarian, Slovak, English, Austrian and Georgian selection. The genetic pool of cornelian cherry of the NBG presents a rich variety of biological and economic properties. Data on the content of anthocyanins and flavonols in the fruits of <em>Cornus mas</em> cultivars with early, medium and late fruit maturation periods are presented. The fruits of the <em>Cornus officinalis</em> Sieb. et Zucc. (CO-01, CO-02) and the hybrid <em>Cornus mas</em> × <em>Cornus officinalis</em> (cultivars Etude No 1 and No 2) were also studied. As a result of the study, it was found that the content of anthocyanins and flavonols in the fruits of <em>Cornus</em> has a significant difference in cultivars. Among <em>C. mas</em> cultivars with early fruit ripening, the most promising as a source of bioflavonoids preparations are ’Pervenets‘ and ’Volodimirskij‘, among <em>C. mas</em> cultivars with an average fruit ripening period, the most promising are the cultivars Mrіya Shajdarovoi, Vydubetskyi and Titus, among the <em>C. mas</em> cultivars with a late fruit ripening period, the most promising are the cultivar Sokoline. Also promising are the hybrid <em>C. mas</em> × <em>C. officinalis</em> (cultivar Etude No. 1 and No. 2). These most promising cultivars and forms must commend for use in the food and medical sectors of the national economy.</p> Volodymyr Levon, Svitlana Klymenko Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/334 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Comparative Assessment of the Antibacterial Efficacy of Leaf Extract Obtained from Ficus benjamina L. (Moraceae) and its Cultivars against Aeromonas sobria Strain http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/336 <p style="text-align: justify;">The present study is in vitro study to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extracts derived from leaves of <em>Ficus benjamina</em> L. and its cultivars (Safari, Baroque, Amstel Gold, Reginald) against <em>Aeromonas sobria</em> to assess the possible use of this plant in preventing infections caused by this fish pathogen in aquaculture. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the tested <em>Aeromonas sobria</em> was performed by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Our results revealed, that <em>F. benjamina</em> and its cultivars possessed antibacterial properties against <em>Aeromonas sobria</em> strain. The ethanolic extract obtained from leaves of<em> F. benjamina</em> ’Safari‘ exhibited the maximum antimicrobial activity against <em>Aeromonas</em> <em>sobria</em> (the mean of inhibition zone diameter was 26.19 ±1.32 mm). <em>Aeromonas sobria</em> strain was susceptible to the <em>F. benjamina</em> ’Amstel Gold‘ (15.25 ±1.25 mm) and ’Reginald‘ (16.25 ±1.10 mm). <em>Aeromonas sobria</em> strain was the most resistant to <em>F. benjamina</em> (12.5 ±0.80 mm) and <em>F. benjamina</em> ’Baroque‘ (13.63 ±0.75 mm) leaf extracts. The results of this study provide a new perspective for the use of various Ficus species as medicinal plants to improve the antibacterial responses in aquaculture. Scanning electron microscopy has been employed to observe epicuticular wax structures which can be used to assure the correct identification of plant raw materials. Further studies including the use of other medicinal plants as food additives in aquaculture, the assessment of their antioxidant effects on various tissues of salmonids are in progress.</p> Agnieszka Pękala-Safińska, Halyna Tkachenko, Lyudmyla Buyun, Natalia Kurhaluk, Ivan Gurnenko, Vitaliy Honcharenko, Andriy Prokopiv Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/336 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Studies of the Chemical Composition of Fruits and Seeds of Pawpaw (Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal) http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/342 <p style="text-align: justify;">An international team of scientists continues to study the resource potential of non-conventional or little-utilized plants. Pawpaw (<em>Asimina triloba</em> (L.) Dunal) fruit (pulp and peel) and seeds were analyzed for their nutritional compositions. Seeds exhibited significantly higher levels of crude protein, lipid, and vitamin E (11.82 %, 34.0 %, and 20.80 mg/kg, respectively) than those of the other parts. Sucrose in pulp was 501.40 g/kg, which was the highest among the samples. There is more fructose in the peel 111.90 g/kg. Results revealed that the total amino acids in the seeds, pulp, and peel of<em> A. triloba</em> were 144.6, 21.1, and 20.9 g/kg, respectively. Among the different plant parts used in this study, the seeds contained the most abundant essential amino acid and non-essential amino acid. The glutamic acid exhibited the highest concentration among the tested amino acids. Oleic and linoleic acids in seeds were 40.13 and 38.84 g/100 g, respectively, which were the highest among the pulp and peel. Potassium was the most abundant essential trace mineral element in different parts. This element is present in large amounts in the peel (15487 mg/kg) and pulp (12198 mg/kg) compared to the seeds (3888 mg/kg). In the seeds, P, Ca and S were higher (1937, 1368, and 1322 mg/kg, respectively) than in pulp and peel (1046, 450, 499 and 831, 837, 646 mg/kg, respectively). The high content of beneficial substances makes it possible to include <em>Asimina triloba</em> in the list of species recommended for cultivation on a larger scale and to use its products more widely in dietary nutrition.</p> Olga Grygorieva, Svitlana Klymenko, Olena Vergun, Katarína Fatrcová-Šramková, Olga Shelepova, Yulia Vinogradova, Vladimíra Horčinová Sedláčková, Ján Brindza Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/342 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of the Ethanolic Extracts Derived from Leaves of Coelogyne brachyptera Rchb. f. (Orchidaceae) http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/335 <p style="text-align: justify;">The present study was aimed to assess the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract obtained from leaves of<em> Coelogyne</em> <em>brachyptera</em> Rchb. f. For the current study, а panel of organisms including <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> subsp. <em>aureus</em> Rosenbach (ATCC® 25923™) (mecA negative), <em>S. aureus</em> subsp. <em>aureus</em> Rosenbach (ATCC® 29213™) (mecA negative, Oxacillin sensitive, weak β-lactamase producing strain), <em>S. aureus</em> NCTC 12493 (mecA positive, Methicillin-resistant, EUCAST QC strain for cefoxitin), <em>Escherichia coli</em> (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC® 25922™), <em>E. coli</em> (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC® 35218™), <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (Schroeter) Migula (ATCC® 27583™) were used. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on Muller-Hinton agar by the disc diffusion method. The results of our study revealed the differential efficacy of ethanolic extract obtained from leaves of <em>C. brachyptera</em> on the test organisms. The ethanolic extract obtained from leaves of <em>C. brachyptera</em> revealed significant antibacterial activity against studied strains compared to control samples (96 % ethanol). A statistically significant increase (p &lt;0.05) in the inhibition zone diameters of strain growth was 47 % for <em>S. aureus</em> subsp. <em>aureus</em> ATCC® 25923™, 40 % for <em>S. aureus</em> subsp. <em>aureus</em> ATCC® 29213™, and 44 % for <em>S. aureus</em> NCTC 12493. A non-significantly increase in inhibition zone diameters of <em>E. coli</em> strains’ growth was also observed. The plant can be a source material to the herbal drug industry since it has some important antimicrobial components in the extracts that can be used for the development of therapeutic phytomedicine and phytoveterinary.</p> Lyudmyla Buyun, Halyna Tkachenko, Natalia Kurhaluk, Oleksandr Gyrenko, Lyudmyla Kovalska, Anna Góralczyk Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/335 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Antioxidant Activity of Extracts of Wild Humulus lupulus L. http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/352 <p style="text-align: justify;">Plants from natural flora (wild-growing) as well as cultural plants demonstrated numerous useful properties that play an important role in human life. They often can be used as medicinal, forage, food, etc. Searching for new sources of valuable capacities of wild plants still is actual. <em>Humulus lupulus</em> L. (hop) is well-known species from the small family Cannabaceae that is used as a bittering agent in the brewing industry and as a medicinal plant. <em>H. lupulus</em> raw is a valuable source of biologically active compounds and demonstrated different biological activities. This study was aimed to determine the antioxidant activity and accumulation of polyphenol compounds in raw wild plants of <em>H. lupulus</em>. Raw (leaves, stems, and female flowers) collected from the natural flora of M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of the NAS of Ukraine. In ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers and stems determined 54.13, 44.69 and 23.76 mg GAE/g (gallic acid equivalent) of polyphenol content (TPC), respectively; 7.24, 4.92, 2.56 mg CAE/g (caffeic acid equivalent) of phenolic acids (TPAC), respectively; 45.48, 29.64 and 18.31 mg QE/g (quercetin equivalent) of flavonoid content (TFC), respectively. Molybdenum reducing power of leaf, flower, and stem extracts was 168.17, 236.45, and 97.57 mg TE/g (Trolox equivalent), respectively; antioxidant activity by DPPH method 8.64, 8.02, and 7.97 mg TE/g, respectively. This study showed that the highest values of polyphenol compounds found in the leaves and the lowest in the stem extracts. The strongest correlation found between TPAC and TFC (r = 0.995), TPC and TPAC (r = 0.978), TPC and TFC (r = 0.952), TFC and DPPH (r = 0.936). This investigation showed the high antioxidant potential of the wild <em>H. lupulus</em> plant that can be used in the further pharmacological study.</p> Olena Vergun, Oksana Shymanska, Eva Ivanišová, Valentyna Fishchenko Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/352 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Comparison of Old and Local Apple Varieties and Seedlings (Malus domestica Borkh.) in the Variability of Some Morphological Characters of Fruits and Seeds http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/350 <p style="text-align: justify;">Old and local varieties of cultivated plant species selected from natural populations adapted to long-term cultivation, which represent a rich genetic potential for the development of agroecosystems and agriculture under specific conditions, resources for an environment aestheticization, landscaping and development of cultural traditions. The research focused on determining the economic value of a selected collection of old and local varieties of apple tree (<em>Malus domestica</em> Borkh.), widespread in Slovakia for their practical use in organic farming or as genetic resources for breeding new varieties for organic food production. For experimental evaluation, we used two collections: 1) 73 old and local varieties of apple trees concentrated and preserved <em>ex situ</em> in a clone repository in the village Bacúch; 2) 77 self-sown seedlings, that spontaneously emerged as a result of free pollination and are growing <em>in situ</em> around Nitra, Levice, Nové Zámky, Šaľa, Galanta, Hlohovec, Piešťany, Prievidza, Partizánske, Zlaté Moravce. We determined for all specimens the range for the weight of fruits 53.63–207.40/16.13–197.59 (g), height of fruits 41.47–72.93/ 29.55–74.04 (mm), diameter of fruits 51.46–84.66/36.85–78.43 (mm), length of core/13.16–27.36/11.24– 25.86 (mm), diameter of core 18.26–33.46/13.72–30.86 (mm), weight of 10 seeds 0.38–0.77/0.29–0.98 (g), height of seeds 6.68–9.90/6.16–9.83 (mm), diameter of seeds 3.73–5.71/3.51–5.27 (mm). The results document that in both collections there are genotypes suitable for organic cultivation, and further selective improvement.</p> Vladimíra Horčinová Sedláčková, Miloš Hulin, Yulia Vinogradova, Inna Goncharovska, Ján Brindza Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/350 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Prospects of the Application of Some Species of the Lamiaceae Family and Some Features of the Development of Their Tinctures http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/357 <p style="text-align: justify;">The search for new powerful herbal products with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antinociceptive activities presents an important area of pharmaceutical research. Some plants of the Lamiaceae family are well‑known for their significant antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and pain‑relieving activities. Species of the Lamiaceae attract a great scientific interest mainly due to the diversity of terpenes and phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids and flavonoids. Essential oils possess certain antimicrobial activity. For experimental studies, we selected four herbs. Among them were <em>Monarda fistulosa</em> L., <em>Satureja hortensis</em> L., <em>Thymus vulgaris</em> L., and <em>Mentha piperita</em> L. Four tinctures of the above-mentioned herbs were elaborated and partly phytochemically evaluated. We established the coefficients of alcohol absorption for the tested raw materials and the maximum absorption for active markers and tinctures after adding aluminum chloride that is needed for the development and standardization of tinctures. The solutions of complexes aluminum chloride with quercetin (20 mg/L), rutin (50.2 mg/L), and chrysin (80 mg/L) had the maximum absorption at the wavelengths of 425.9 ±0.3 nm at 77 min of the reaction, 412.3 ±0.3 nm at 82 min, 388.4 ±0.7 nm at 81 min, respectively. The tinctures of <em>Monarda fistulosa</em>, <em>Satureja hortensis</em>, <em>Thymus vulgaris</em>, and <em>Mentha piperita</em> had the maximum absorption at 391.2 ±0.5 nm at 91 min, 389.9 ±0.5 nm at 76 min, 391.8 nm at 83 min, 394.9 ±1.1 nm at 78 min, respectively. The carried out spectrophotometric studies confirmed the prevalence of flavones in the tested tinctures, considering the proximity of the maximum absorption of the tested tinctures and chrysin. The next studies will be continued at the standardization of the developed tinctures and the establishment of their antimicrobial activity.</p> Oksana Yezerska, Roman Darmograj, Nataliia Hudz, Volodymyr Levon Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/357 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Effect of Alginite in the Form of ALGEXr 6 Preparation on the Biomass Formation and Antioxidant Activity of Some Medicinal Plants http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/356 <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of the research is to determine the effect of application of the developed product (extract) called ALGEX<sub>r </sub>6 from natural mineral rock alginite in two different watering periods on the formation of root biomass and above-ground plant biomass of a selected group of medicinal plants (<em>Melissa officinalis</em> L., <em>Malva verticillata</em> L. and <em>Ocimum</em> x <em>citriodorum </em>Vis.) and determining the antioxidant activity in dried leaves and whole plants in aqueous and methyl alcohol extracts by DPPH method . The experiment was established in the Botanical Garden at the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra throughout 2020. ALGEX<sub>r </sub>6 was prepared by a research team at the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra in the form of an extract from the natural mineral rock alginite with an application of thermal and chemical treatment. In the experiment, ALGEX<sub>r </sub>6 was applied in the form of a watering in two variants with the same concentration of 3 % solution in 2 decilitres of water, but various application in terms of days in the pre-harvest stage of the above-ground plant biomass of 30 individual plants from each species. There are two diametrically opposite trends of ALGEX<sub>r </sub>6 application that are manifesting themselves in <em>M. officinalis</em> and <em>M. verticillata</em> by reducing the root and above-ground part biomass compared to the control variant. The percentage proportionality of root/above-ground part biomass in <em>M. officinalis</em> decreased from 62.48 /30.31 % (control), to 45.57/18.85 % (variant 1) and to 36.07/17.27 % (variant 2), as well as in <em>M. verticillata</em> the root/above-ground part biomass decreased from 16.03/13.93 % (control), to 14.97/9.42 % (variant 1) and to 11.61/10.14 % (variant 2). In the species <em>Ocimum</em> x <em>citriodorum</em> Vis. the opposite trend manifested. The application of ALGEX<sub>r </sub>6 watering resulted in increasing the antioxidant activity on the tested plant parts, especially in aqueous extracts in <em>M. officinalis</em> (from 19.30/control to 33.61 %/variant 1, 2), also in <em>O. citriodorum </em>(from 26.56/control to 44.16 %/variant 1), while in methyl alcohol extracts, the antioxidant activity showed a slight increase in all tested species.</p> Vladimíra Horčinová Sedláčková, Jana Šimková, Erika Mňahončáková, Michaela Hrúzová, Peter Kovár, Ľuboš Vozár, Peter Hric Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/356 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Antimicrobial Efficacy of Ethanolic Extracts Obtained from Leaves of Camellia japonica L. Cultivars against Escherichia coli Strain http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/337 <p style="text-align: justify;">The present study was aimed to determine the antibacterial activity of six plants, i.e. <em>Camellia japonica</em> L. (cultivars Kramer’s Supreme, C.M. Wilson, La Pace, Mrs. Lyman Clarke, Benikarako, Fanny Bolis) against <em>Escherichia coli (</em>Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC® 25922™) strain. Ethanolic extracts were prepared by freshly crushed leaves and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against <em>Escherichia coli</em> ATCC® 25922™ strain using disc diffusion assay. The increase of the mean of the diameters of the inhibition zone was 58.4 % for cv. Kramer’s Supreme, 29.2 % for cv. La Pace and cv. Mrs. Lyman Clarke, 22.5 % for cv. Fanny Bolis, 19.1% for cv. Benikarako, and 18 % for cv. C.M. Wilson compared to the control samples (96 % ethanol). Among the six plant extracts, <em>C. japonica</em> ’Kramer’s Supreme‘ exhibited the highest inhibitory zones against the tested strain (the mean of the zone of inhibitions was 14.1 ±1.1 mm). The intermediate activity was presented by other cultivars studied. The findings reported herein give scientific credence to the traditional uses of these plants and suggest that extracts derived from the leaves of <em>Camellia</em> <em>japonica</em> and its cultivars merit further chemical study as natural antibiotics to identify the secondary metabolites. These results could provide a theoretical basis for making full use of <em>Camellia japonica</em> and its cultivars. Moreover, their antibacterial activities can play an important role in medicine, veterinary, food preservation, and other aspects. Mechanisms of antibacterial activities remain to be studied.</p> Lyudmyla Buyun, Halyna Tkachenko, Natalia Kurhaluk, Igor Kharchenko, Myroslava Maryniuk, Maryna Opryshko, Oleksandr Gyrenko, Anna Góralczyk Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/337 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Comparison of Budding Methods of Two Cultivars of Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/349 <p style="text-align: justify;">Cornelian cherry (<em>Cornus mas</em> L.) is a little-known fruit species that deserves attention because of the possibility of increasing the biodiversity of crops and making the human diet more attractive. The fruit of the cornelian cherry, due to its health-promoting properties, can be widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Increasing the cultivation area of this species depends on the availability of high-quality planting material. The reproduction of valuable varieties is possible only with the use of vegetative reproduction. One of the most effective methods of cornelian cherry reproduction is budding on cornelian cherry rootstocks. In the experiment carried out in the conditions of South-Eastern Poland, the efficiency of T-budding and chip-budding of two cultivars of cornelian cherry (Nikolka and Koralovyi Marka) was compared depending on the intensity of fertilization. Unusual weather conditions in spring, especially low temperature, delay the growth of rootstocks. However, foliar fertilization resulted in obtaining maiden trees with a larger diameter than those fertilized in the soil. The efficiency of budding under the experimental conditions was on average 40 %, and it was higher for the cultivar Koralovyi Marka and the chip-budding method. The variety and method of fertilization did not affect the efficiency of budding. In contrast, chip-budding budding was higher than that of T-budding multiplied. In this experiment a strong positive correlation was proved between the trunk diameter of maiden trees and their height.</p> Iwona Szot, Justyna Wywiórka-Marek, Dawid Kucio Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/349 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Study of Morphological Characters of Pollen Grains Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) by Scanning Electron Microscopy http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/340 <p style="text-align: justify;">The studying of <em>Castanea sativa</em> Mill. pollen allows us to determine the details of morphological characteristics and described the most important parameters and pollen sculpture that can be used to identify representatives of species. The general characteristics and significant morphological traits of pollen grains of 16 genotypes <em>Castanea sativa</em> Mill. collected from M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of Ukraine(Kyiv) were observed via a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The measurement of morphometric parameters was carried out on 50 pollen grains from each genotype using the AxioVision Rel. 4.8.2.0 program. The length of the polar axis (P) and the equatorial diameter (E) of grain, P/E ratio were measured and their variation was compared among studied genotypes. SEM investigations showed that the pollen grains of <em>Castanea sativa</em> are small-sized, the equatorial view is elliptic, the polar view is angular, with convex mesocolpia, more or less circular. This study showed the small differences between the genotypes in all measured factors. The average polar axis and equatorial diameter of pollen grains values varied in the interval 19.10 ±0.21–20.53 ±0.21 and 8.86 ±0.05–9.85 ±0.08, respectively. We determined the variation coefficient in the range of 3.37–8.93 %. It was noted that diversity of surface sculpturing of pollen grains in combination with shape and sizes enables to use of a complex of thin morphological signs for <em>Castanea sativa</em> pollen identifications.</p> Vladimíra Horčinová Sedláčková, Olga Grygorieva, Ivan Gurnenko Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/340 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extracts Obtained from Roots and Stalks of Chelidonium majus L. against Escherichia coli Strains http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/360 <p style="text-align: justify;">Nowadays, antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria is increasingly common. The <em>Chelidonium majus</em> L. is one of the most widely used genera in folk medicine, where it is popular for its antibacterial activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of five ethanolic extracts obtained from stalks and roots of <em>C. majus</em> collected from the rural and urban agglomerations on the territory of the Kartuzy district in the Pomeranian province (northern part of Poland) against <em>Escherichia coli</em> strains. The <em>Escherichia coli</em> (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC® 25922™) and <em>Escherichia coli</em> Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC® 25922™) strains were used in the current study. It has been observed that ethanolic extracts derived from stalks and roots of <em>C. majus</em> collected from rural and urban areas revealed weak antibacterial activity (7.95–8.25 mm as the diameters of inhibition zone) compared to the control samples. Our results revealed that the extracts derived from stalks and roots of <em>C. majus</em> have shown weak antibacterial activity against the tested strains. The detailed chemistry of the active compounds and possible mechanism(s) of actions of the bio-molecules responsible for the observed activity was not addressed in the current study. Thus, further evaluation for the nature of active compounds (bio-molecules) and detailed mechanism(s) of their interaction with microbial strains are recommended.</p> Nataniel Stefanowski, Halyna Tkachenko, Natalia Kurhaluk Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/360 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Structural Diversity of Trichomes and Pubescence of Brassicaceae Burnett of the Flora of Ukraine with an Emphasis on Ecology http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/341 <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Видам семейства Brassicaceae (крестоцветные), имеющим большое научное и практическое значение, присущее большое разнообразие трихомных структур. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Трихомы - специализированные клетки эпидермиса, модулирующие реакцию растений на биотические и абиотические стрессы. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Мы исследовали структурное разнообразие трихом и особенности опушения всех (252 вида, 73) Brassicaceae флоры Украины. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Трихомы исследованы на живых растениях и на материалах семи гербариев, а также на основе анализа литературных данных. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Использовались стереоскопический и электронный сканирующий (JSM-6060 LA) микроскопы. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Для описания структурного разнообразия трихом была использована оригинальная четырехуровневая иерархическая классификация, учитывающая комплекс признаков:</span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">включая функциональную специфичность (покрывающую или железистую), характер и степень ветвления волос, а также особенности ориентации их лучей. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Опушение растений подразделяется на изоморфное (состоит из одного типа трихом) и гетероморфное (образовано двумя и более типами волосков с железистыми структурами или без них). </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Волосы полностью отсутствуют у 23 видов 15 родов флоры Украины. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Изоморфное опушение характерно видов для наибольшего (170) крестоцветных растений и числа простыми (120 видов), мальпигиевыми (23 вида), звездчатыми (23 вида), дендроидными (3) и вилкообразными (1 вид) трихомами. </span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">В составе гетероморфного опушения преобладает сочетание простых и вилкообразных волосков: оно наблюдается у 44 видов. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Железистые структуры в опушении 14 видов.</span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Структурное разнообразие трихом Brassicaceae в целом коррелирует с умеренно-континентальным климатом Украины. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">В биотопах с достаточным уровнем комфорта, оптимальной инсоляцией и удовлетворительным качеством результатов наблюдаются виды без волосков или опушенные простыми трихомами, в числе с вилкообразными волосками. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Виды с плотно разветвленными трихомами населяют засушливые биотопы с интенсивной инсоляцией, недостаточным увлажнением и бедным субстратом. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Во флоре Украины эволюционно-филогенетическая линия LII включает неопушенные виды или виды с простыми волосками. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Крестоцветная линия L характеризуется изоморфным и гетероморфным опушением. </span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">У вида LIV преобладает гетероморфное опушение.</span></span></span></span></p> Antonina Ilyinska Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/341 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Taxonomic Characteristics of Vegetative Organs for Invasive Species of Reynoutria Hook. http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/358 <p style="text-align: justify;">Species of the genus <em>Reynoutria</em> Hook. were originally intentionally introduced from East Asia and in the twentieth century, three of them were successfully naturalized in Europe: <em>R. sachalinensis</em> (F. Schmidt) Nakai, <em>R. japonica</em> Houtt. and their cultigenous hybrid <em>R. × bohemica</em> Chrtek &amp; Chrtková, which arose in the secondary distributional range of the parent species. As the taxa of the genus <em>Reynoutria</em> bloom very late, in late September-October, the characteristics of their leaves – shape, and type of pubescence – are mainly used as diagnostic ones. Identification of the species is often difficult, so this paper aims to identify diagnostic characters of their leaves in the secondary distribution range. Spontaneous invasive populations in Luxembourg, the Czech Republic, and Russia have been investigated. Comparisons have been made with plants growing in the natural range in Japan. Morphological characters were studied using a Keyence VHX-1000E digital microscope and an LEO 1430 VP scanning microscope. <em>R. sachalinensis</em> was found to be well distinguished from other species by its larger leaves with a heart-shaped base and a non-retracted apex. On the underside of the leaf, there are long uniseriate filiform trichomes along the lateral veins or outside the veins and peltate glands with 4-, 6- or 8-cell heads. For <em>R. × bohemica</em>, the presence of unicellular conical trichomes on the midrib was found to be a diagnostic feature in plants growing in Middle Russia (but not always) and is not applicable to plants from Czech populations, from which this species was actually described! In the taxonomic description of R. japonica, it has been suggested that the maximum height of the shoots should be significantly reduced (from 3 m to 1 m), as in the natural range this taxon has prostrate shoots. Plants of the secondary range with tall shoots are likely to be really <em>R. × bohemica</em> hybrids. It has been suggested that in Eastern Europe R. japonica grows generally very rare and predominantly in culture, and the information about most plants from invasive populations described in the literature as <em>R. japonica</em> should in fact be attributed to the hybrid complex <em>R. × bohemica</em>.</p> Yulia Vinogradova, Alla Kuklina, Andrey Ryabchenko Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/358 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Unique Effects of Alginite as a Bituminous Rock on Soil, Water, Plants and Animal Organisms – Review http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/361 <p style="text-align: justify;">The publication aims to present some knowledge about the less-known but at the same time very scarce bituminous rock alginite with comprehensive practical use in the form of a brief overview. Alginite is an organic-bituminous rock that was formed about six million years ago from dead fossil algae <em>Botryococcus braunii</em> Kütz and diatoms in the area of today‘s Pannonian Basin. In Europe, alginite deposits have been discovered in Hungary, Austria and Slovakia in Pinciná village. Alginite mining is mostly used in Hungary in the Gerce area. Alginite is grey to dark grey, in the wet state dark laminated, clayey with the form of disintegrating clay. Alginite has very valuable physical, mechanical and chemical properties. It is a natural bituminous rock with a favourable content of basic nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg and S) for plants except for nitrogen content. Alginite contains a large number of microelements, which increase the agrochemical possibilities of its use. It can be applied in its natural form without chemical treatment. It is an ecological raw material that improves the soil and does not negatively affect the environment. Alginite has become the subject of research in many workplaces. The overview presents the basic physical, mechanical and chemical properties of alginite and selected knowledge and research results that have enabled the practical use of alginite in natural or technologically modified form in agriculture in the formation of growth, development and crop formation and quality of seeds and fruits of cultivated crops, forestry, remediation and improvement of soil and water properties, decomposition of herbicides, stabilization of beneficial microorganisms in animal organisms and other areas.</p> Ján Brindza, Ľuboš Vozár, Marián Miko, Ján Gažo, Peter Kovár, Vladimíra Horčinová Sedláčková, Olga Grygorieva Copyright (c) 2021 Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://agrobiodiversity.uniag.sk/scientificpapers/article/view/361 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200