Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality <p align="justify">Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality is an Open access scientific journal published by the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra and the M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden (NBG) of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Kyiv), within the joint international network AgroBioNet. The Journal was formerly published as a serial with annual periodicity (proceedings of scientific papers) up to 2020 and from the year 2021 it is published in biannual periodicity (two issues per year).</p> Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra en-US Agrobiodiversity for Improving Nutrition, Health and Life Quality 2585-8246 The Phenological phases of development of Cornus florida L. under conditions of introduction in Ukraine <p align="justify">Phenological studies do not lose their relevance and are carried out in very different aspects. They are important for monitoring the response of plants to climate changes, the selection of new cultivars of plants, the introduction of new non-traditional fruit crops, agricultural production, etc. According to the BBCH scale, the phenological phases of development of <em>Cornus florida</em> L. (flowering dogwood), an ornamental and fruiting plant from the family Cornaceae Bercht. &amp; J. Presl., with useful medicinal, antioxidant, technical, and ecological properties, are codified. In the climatic conditions of Ukraine (M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (NBG)), <em>C. florida</em> plants go through a full cycle of seasonal development. <em>Cornus florida</em> biotypes, according to the BBCH scale, are characterized by eight of the ten principal stages of seasonal development, in particular: the development of buds (BBCH 0), leaves (BBCH 1), shoots (BBCH 3), inflorescence (BBCH 5), flowering (BBCH 6), fruit development (BBCH 7), fruit ripening (BBCH 8) and senescence, beginning of dormancy (BBCH 9). <em>Cornus florida</em> (subgenus Cynoxylon (Raf.) Raf.) differs from species of the subgenus <em>Cornus</em> by the descriptive and diagnostic features of phenophases. The development of <em>C. florida</em> in the NBG in dry 2021 confirmed its adaptive tolerance to seasonal water deficit, both in the region of the native range of the species (central Missouri) and in the experimental conditions of growing introduced plants in China. <em>Cornus florida</em> deserves a wide introduction on the territory of Ukraine.</p> Svitlana Klymenko Olga Grygorieva Mykhailo Zhurba Antonina Ilyinska Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 7 2 Seasonal Variety of Selected Indigenous Plant Raw Materials and Foodstuffs Avaiable for Consumption in Namibia – A Review <p align="justify">This review is based on the nutritional content of the available indigenous foods to identify area of future research. Most indigenous foods are affordable and has good source of micronutrients, but the consumption rate of these foods is declining. It is important to increase awareness of the need to consume indigenous foods to reduce food insecurity and malnutrition. Most indigenous foods are seasonal and range from cereal-based foods to beverage drinks. In Namibia, the most important part of the human diet are pearl millet, sorghum, and maize. These crops mostly are rich in complex carbohydrates (starch), protein, mineral compounds (potassium, calcium, iron and zinc), vitamins and polyphenols. From legumes crops are widely used cowpeas, groundnut and marama beans. Most legumes are a good source of protein, starch, dietary fibre, fats, and micronutrients. Legumes with high sources of protein can be used as meat alternatives, which is very actual and attractive in the food industry. Fruits and plant-based foods are very common in Nigeria are monkey oranges, marula fruits, bird plums, jackal berries, makalani palm, manketti and water lilies, tiger nuts, and roselle. These fruits contain carbohydrates, proteins and some micronutrients. Indigenous fruits have the potential to be used in medicine for treating diseases due to the high level of bioactive compounds, especially antioxidants. Some plants like roselle (<em>Hibiscus sabdariffa</em> L.) have the potential to control diseases like type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Most vegetables used in Namibia provide nutrients such as beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, mineral compounds (iron and calcium) protein, and phytochemicals. Traditional fermented beverages – oshikundu, omagongo, oshinwa, and mutete juice and known to provide a wide range of nutrients including vitamins A, C, B12, iron, and calcium. Based on this review, we recommend sustainable promotion of these foods and regular consumption of indigenous foods as a solution to malnutrition. There is a great potential to grow indigenous foods in community nurseries and home gardens to increase the availability.</p> Fiina K. Namukwambi Percy M. Chimwamurombe Yapo Aboua Olga Grygorieva Eva Ivanišová Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 7 2 Silver nanoparticles initiation using Calendula officinalis L. hairy root extracts <p align="justify">Nanoparticles (NPs) of various metals, in particular, copper, silver, gold, zinc, and titanium, are now considered promising and multifunctional components for biomedical applications. For the formation of nanoparticles, a “green” synthesis method has been developed based on the use of plant extracts to initiate nanoparticles. This method is considered simple and safe as it involves the use of extracts from well-studied plants. The main condition for the possibility of “green“ synthesis of metal nanoparticles is the presence of the similar activity in the extracts. The possibilities of using <em>Calendula officinalis</em> L. hairy root extracts for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and its dependence on flavonoid concentration in the extracts were studied in this work. The extracts obtained with the use of 70% ethanol had the highest reducing activity in comparison with the aqueous extracts. Reducing activity of the extracts correlated with the concentration of flavonoids. The presence of nanoparticles of different sizes was confirmed by using transmission electron microscopy. Colloid solutions of AgNPs obtained using the extract with a higher content of flavonoids had significantly higher absorption values in the range of 420–440 nm, which is characteristic of AgNPs. An increase in absorption over time (up to two weeks) indicates long-term preservation of reducing activity in the mixture with AgNO<sub>3</sub>. The smallest AgNPs (0.33… 7 nm) were formed when an aqueous extract was used, and the largest ones (up to 41.83 nm) with an extract obtained with 96% ethanol. Thus, it is the aqueous<em> C. officinalis</em> extract that should be chosen if it is necessary to obtain silver nanoparticles of small size.</p> Nadiia Matvieieva Volodymyr Duplij Anatolii Shakhovsky Dmytro Klymchuk Valeriia Belokurova Mykola Kuchuk Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 7 2 In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of Different Natural Linden Honeys against Some Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Strains <p align="justify">Linden honey is rich in organic acids, such as formic acid and malic acid, which have antibacterial and antiinflammatory properties. This, in turn, helps prevent bacterial infections and inflammatory diseases that can lead to serious cardiovascular disorders. These bactericidal and antiviral properties are due to the high content of inhibin, lysozyme, and apidicin. These are bactericidal and antiviral enzymes that are responsible for the strong antibiotic properties of linden honey. The aim of the current study was <em>in vitro</em> antimicrobial profiling of different natural linden honey produced by Polish manufacturers, exhibiting inhibitory activity against Gram-positive strains such as <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> subsp. <em>aureus</em> Rosenbach ATCC®25923™, and Gram-negative strains such as <em>Pseudomonas </em><em>aeruginosa</em> (Schroeter) Migula ATCC®27853™, <em>Escherichia coli</em> (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers ATCC®25922™. The different natural linden honey produced by Polish manufacturers such as Beekeeping farm “Pszczółka“ (Ustka, Poland), Beekeeping farm “Mazurskie Miody Bogdan Piasecki“ (Tomaszkowo, Poland), Beekeeping farm “Sądecki Bartnik“ (Stróże, Poland), Beekeeping farm “Zaczarowany Ogród“, and Beekeeping farm “Karolczak Cezary” (Sławno, Poland) were used in the current study. The samples were stored in resalable vials at 5 °C in the dark but were allowed to adjust to room temperature before investigation. The testing of the antibacterial activity of different natural linden honey was carried out<em> in vitro</em> by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. This study demonstrated that all samples of natural linden honey produced by Polish manufacturers demonstrated mild antibacterial activity against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> subsp. <em>aureus</em> Rosenbach ATCC®25923™, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (Schroeter) Migula ATCC®27853™, and<em> Escherichia coli</em> (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers ATCC®25922™ strains. More sensitive to all samples of natural linden honey studied was <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> subsp. <em>aureus</em> Rosenbach ATCC®25923™ strain following <em>Escherichia coli</em> (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers ATCC®25922™ strain. <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa.</em></p> Halina Tkachenko Natalia Kurhaluk Oleksandr Lukash Oleksandr Yakovenko Maryna Opryshko Myroslava Maryniuk Oleksandr Gyrenko Lyudmyla Buyun Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 7 2 Varibility of Flavonoid Content, Reducing and Antioxidant Activity in Althaea officinalis L. Hairy Roots <p align="justify"><em>Althaea officinalis</em> L. is widely used as a medicinal plant due to its antiseptic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and gastroprotective properties. <em>A. officinalis</em> roots contain a great number of secondary metabolites including flavonoids which exert antioxidant and chelating abilities. Flavonoids possess protective effects against several chronic diseases, in particular neurodegeneration and cancer; they have also neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer effects. Tissue cultures of different plant species are a promising source of secondary metabolites with pharmacological activities, and hairy roots are one of the types. Hairy roots are known as fast-growing, genetically stable cultures, effective producers of both biomass and specialized plant metabolites including flavonoids. <em>A. officinalis</em> hairy roots and roots of in vitro cultured control (initial) plants were used in this research to study flavonoid content and some biochemical characteristics (antioxidant activity and ability to reduce iron ions Fe<sup>3+</sup> to Fe<sup>2+</sup>) of their ethanolic extracts. Two groups of hairy root lines were studied. Hairy roots of one group were obtained as the result of transformation with A4 wild <em>Agrobacterium rhizogenes</em> strain while the second group was initiated by transformation with <em>A. rhizogenes</em> strain carrying human interferon-α2b gene under the control of the sugarbeet root-specific Mll promoter. Among the two groups of hairy root lines no significant differences were detected that could suggest the role of additional genes in the antioxidant status of the hairy roots: in both groups, there were lines with low, medium and high values of the studied parameters. The total flavonoid content correlated with DPPH scavenging activity and reducing capacity. The results of study confirm flavonoid participation in antiradical reactions in <em>A. officinalis</em> hairy root cells.</p> Taisa Bohdanovych Valeriia Belokurova Nadiia Matvieieva Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 7 2 In Vitro Antioxidant Response of the Equine Blood Treated by Extract Derived from Leaves of Ficus Sagittata Vahl (Moraceae) <p align="justify">The current study aimed to investigate the oxidative stress biomarkers, such as 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), aldehydic and ketonic derivatives of oxidatively modified proteins, and total antioxidant capacity, as well as antioxidant defenses (activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, ceruloplasmin) in the equine erythrocytes and plasma to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract derived from leaves of <em>Ficus sagittata</em> Vahl collected at two Botanic Gardens, i.e. M.M. Gryshko National Botanic Garden (Kyiv, Ukraine) and the Botanic Garden of Ivan Franko National University in Lviv (Lviv, Ukraine). Freshly collected leaves were washed, weighed, crushed, and homogenized in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) (in the proportion of 1 : 19, w/w) at room temperature. The extracts were then filtered and used for analysis. A volume of 0.1 mL of the plant extracts was added to 1.9 mL of clean equine erythrocytes or plasma (the final concentration of the extract was 5 mg.mL<sup>-1</sup>). For positive control, 0.1 mL of phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) was used. The treatment of equine plasma and erythrocytes by extracts derived from leaves of <em>F. sagittata</em> resulted in reduced carbonyl derivatives of the oxidatively modified protein. When equine erythrocytes were incubated with the extract derived from leaves of <em>F. sagittata</em> collected in NBG (Kyiv), the TBARS levels were significantly increased compared to the untreated samples. The incubation of equine plasma with an extract derived from leaves of <em>F. sagittata</em> resulted in an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase with a simultaneous decrease of ceruloplasmin level. The level of total antioxidant capacity was significantly increased after the treatment by extract derived from leaves of <em>F. sagittata</em> collected in NBG. However, further detailed investigation, especially <em>in vivo</em> and <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant studies is needed to justify the use of extract derived from leaves of <em>F. sagittata</em> as a natural source of antioxidants.</p> Halina Tkachenko Natalia Kurhaluk Lyudmyla Buyun Vitaliy Honcharenko Andriy Prokopiv Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 7 2 The seasonal variation of antioxidant activity of Nigella spp. in Ukraine <p align="justify">This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of ethanol extracts of <em>Nigella</em> L. species from the Kherson Oblast of Ukraine. The extracts of seeds and above-ground parts of <em>N. damascena</em> L., <em>N. hispanica</em> L., <em>N. orientalis</em> L., and <em>N. sativa</em> L. cv. Diana were used to determine the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic acid content (TPAC), free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), and molybdenum reducing power (MRP). The plant raw material taken for the experiment in sprouting, budding, flowering, and ripening. The TPC of seed extracts was from 8.11 to 35.12 mg GAE.g<sup>-1</sup>, TFC from 3.21 to 12.65 mg QE.g<sup>-1</sup>, TPAC from 2.1 to 8.21 mg CAE.g<sup>-1</sup>, FRSA from 3.56 to 7.32 mg TE.g<sup>-1</sup>, and MRP from 23.47 to 68.34 mg TE.g<sup>-1</sup>. The study of TPC investigated Nigella spp. during vegetation showed accumulation of them from 33.65 to 54.11 mg GAE.g<sup>-1</sup> in the sprouting, from 54.89 to 65.76 mg GAE.g<sup>-1</sup> in the budding, from 43.18 to 88.43 mg GAE.g<sup>-1</sup> in the flowering, and from 49.21 to 71.45 mg GAE.g<sup>-1</sup> in the ripening depending on species. The TFC was from 17.87 to 27.18 mg QE.g<sup>-1</sup> at the sprouting, from 31.87 to 43.54 mg QE.g<sup>-1</sup> in the budding, from 29.11 to 57.34 mg QE.g<sup>-1</sup> in the flowering, and from 23.98 to 50.32 mg QE.g<sup>-1</sup> in the ripening, depending on species. The TPAC was 12.11–17.32 mg CAE.g<sup>-1</sup> in the sprouting, 11.17–18.43 mg CAE.g<sup>-1</sup> in the budding, 10.09–28.45 mg CAE.g<sup>-1</sup> in the flowering, and 17.86–22.43 mg CAE.g<sup>-1</sup> in the ripening. FRSA was in the sprouting 4.56–7.77 mg TE.g<sup>-1</sup>, in the budding 6.38–8.11 mg TE.g<sup>-1</sup>, in the flowering 7.12–9.67 mg TE.g<sup>-1</sup>, and in the ripening 5.12–9.54 tmg TE.g<sup>-1</sup> depending on species. The MRP in the sprouting was 27.14–65.29 mg TE.g<sup>-1</sup>, in the budding 45.48–77.5 mg TE.g<sup>-1</sup>, in the flowering 77.89–94.32 mg TE.g<sup>-1</sup>, and in the ripening 96.11–110.87 mg TE.g<sup>-1</sup>. A strong correlation found between MRP and TPC, TFC, TPAC (r = 0.824–0.965) in the seed extracts. The results obtained in this study can be used for further biochemical and farmaceutical research.</p> Olena Vergun Liudmyla Svydenko Oksana Shymanska Ján Brindza Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 7 2 Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in the Equine Erythrocytes after In Vitro Treatment with Extracts Derived from Different Pseudobulbs of Dendrobium parishii RCHB.F. (Orchidaceae) Plants <p align="justify">The current study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant properties of extracts derived from different pseudobulbs of<em> Dendrobium parishii</em> Rchb.f. using biomarkers of oxidative stress (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances as biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, aldehydic and ketonic derivatives of oxidative modification of proteins (OMP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC)) in the equine erythrocytes after <em>in vitro</em> treatment with the extracts. The current study is a continuation of our cooperation with M.M. Gryshko National Botanic Garden, National Academy of Science of Ukraine (Kyiv, Ukraine) concerning investigations of antibacterial and antioxidant properties of extracts derived from leaves and pseudobulbs of some species belonging to the Orchidaceae family. The antioxidant properties of extracts derived from different pseudobulbs of <em>D. parishii</em> using biomarkers of oxidative stress in the equine erythrocytes after <em>in vitro </em>treatment with the extracts revealed that extracts derived from different pseudobulbs of <em>D. parishii</em> exhibited varying activity. Extracts derived from the first, second, and third pseudobulbs of <em>D. parishii</em> increased lipid peroxidation after <em>in vitro</em> treatment of equine erythrocytes. Extracts derived from the first, sixth, and seventh pseudobulbs of <em>D. parishii</em> caused to decrease in the levels of aldehydic derivatives of OMP. On the other hand, ketonic derivatives of OMP in the erythrocyte samples after incubation with extracts derived from all parts of pseudobulbs of <em>D. parishii</em> (beginning from the base of the growing tip of the rhizome) were decreased. Moreover, extracts derived from the first and sixth parts of pseudobulbs of <em>D. parishii</em> after incubation with erythrocyte samples caused to increase in the TAC levels. The study of extracts derived from <em>D. parishii </em>supports its favorable biological activities and lays a strong foundation for further exploration of its structure-activity relationships and activity development, providing experimental data for the development and utilization of extracts of <em>D. parishii</em>.</p> Lyudmyla Buyun Oleksandr Gyrenko Lyudmyla Kovalska Maryna Opryshko Myroslava Maryniuk Halina Tkachenko Natalia Kurhaluk Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 7 2 Chemical composition of Castanea sativa Mill. fruits <p align="justify">Nowadays, especially important is the introduction of new plants into cultivation in connection with global climate change. Acclimatization of new fruit plants in Ukraine contributes to an increase in the biodiversity of flora. <em>Castanea </em><em>sativa</em> Mill. (sweet chestnut) fruits belong to underutilized fruit plants of the forest-steppe of Ukraine, as a promising and economically profitable crop. The aim of the study, which focused on the nutritional value and composition of <em>C. sativa</em> fruits of Ukrainian origin, was to strengthen the knowledge about the contents of essential nutrients, fatty and amino acids profiles, and the content of selected elements. Chestnut fruits are distinguished by low lipids content (1.9%), a substantial share of proteins (14.9%) and fructose (19.3<sup>-1</sup>), and high β-carotene content (143.1<sup>-1</sup>). The lipid fraction of chestnut fruits is strongly dominated by SFAs, namely palmitic acid (C16:0) 37.93 g.100 g<sup>-1</sup> of oil, followed by the MUFA oleic acid (C18:1 <em>9c</em>) 9.07 g.100 g<sup>-1</sup> of oil, and PUFA α-linolenic (C18:3 <em>9c12c15c</em>) 9.01 g.100 g<sup>-1</sup> of oil. From 18 determined amino acids (128.1<sup>-1</sup> of DW), glutamic acid was found to be the major component (17.2<sup>-1</sup>). Surprisingly essential amino acids/total amino acids ratio amounted to 44%, which according to FAO WHO may be regarded as high-quality protein plant food. Calcium and phosphorus were the most abundant elements (8,213 and 8,155<sup>-1</sup> of DW respectively), simultaneously with a low Na : K ratio (low amount of Na 9<sup>-1</sup>). Summing up, presented composition and literature data regarding nutrients proved that <em>C. sativa</em> fruits are valuable ingredients in a healthy diet.</p> Agata Antoniewska-Krzeska Olga Grygorieva Mykhailo Zhurba Inna Goncharovska Jan Brindza Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 7 2 Pollen Morphology of Some Species of the Genus Amelanchier Medik. <p align="justify">Pollen grain structure is one of the diagnostic taxonomic and phylogenetic parameters. Study of morphology and morphometry of pollen grains of <em>Amelanchier </em>spp. allows found new additional diagnostic parameters of species. We determined that pollen of <em>Amelanchier</em> spp. is variable both in size and morphology. SEM investigations showed that the pollen grains various species of <em>Amelanchier</em> are prolate and perprolate, the surface sculpture and shape index of the species vary. The average length of the polar axis varied from 27.38 to 47.14 μm and the width of the equatorial axis was in the range from 14.33 to 28.95 μm. Shape index (P/E) of tested species varied from 1.77 to 2.09. The most average length of pollen was <em>Amelanchier spicata</em> (43.24 μm) and the least length was <em>Amelanchier arborea</em> (13.69 μm). The most average width pollen was <em>Amelanchier canadensis </em>(23.04 μm), and the least width was <em>Amelanchier arborea</em> (16.07 μm). Cluster analysis showed that the relationships of the tested Amelanchier species according to morphological features are represented by two main groups. It is evidently that <em>A. arborea</em> which has the smallest parameters is really separated from other species. <em>A. lamarki</em>, <em>A. spicata</em> and <em>A. canadensis</em> are similar according to morphometric sizes. Studies via scanning electron microscope have established characteristic differences in the morphometric and microsculptural features of pollen for each of the studied <em>Amelanchier</em> spp. which can be used to identify the representatives of species. Differences in the size of pollen grains in comparison with other authors may be the result of many environmental factors specific to the geographical area, climatic conditions of the country such as constantly increasing atmospheric temperature, alternation of rainfall with a dry season and others, which could be the subject of further research.</p> Vladimíra Horčinová Sedláčková Ivan Gurnenko Inna Goncharovska Copyright (c) 2023 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 7 2