The National collection of Ukraine consists of approximately 2,500 buckwheat samples in total, whereas local buckwheat species are its most valuable part, comprising over 1,500 samples. This material has been collected on the territory of former Soviet Union and foreign countries. The material preservation is conducted based on ex-situ storage method (any plant genepool samples collection preserved outside of its typical habitat area). Collection is coordinated by two institutions: Research Institute cereals them. Helen Alekseeva Podolsky State Agricultural and Technical University and Ustymivska Experimental Station of Plant Production of Plant Production Institute n.a. V.Ya. Yuryev NAAS. In order to conduct guaranteed preservation of the local samples, there is a program in place for mid- (up to 15 years, over 1,600 samples preserved) and long-term (over 20 years, more than 1,300 samples preserved) storage. The main collection’s doublet is stored in the different institutions in order to preserve the collection from loss in case of unforeseen natural or homogenous circumstances. The collection is maintained with material authenticity, high viability indicators and timely seed multiplication. The available buckwheat local samples genepool is classified into groups and subgroups based on its ecological and geographical origin and description of the plant material structure (quantitative and qualitative indicators). The genepool is actively studied based on the complex of industrial and valuable for selection criteria. According to the obtained results, special collections are created based on plant productivity, precocity, extensive number of inflorescences and grains, disease- and pests-resistance etc. Local samples are used in the selection process as a valuable source material for various research trends. They have become the basis for the creation of promising and zoned on the territory of Ukraine and foreign countries cultivars, such as ‘Radehivska polipshena’, ‘Viktoria’, ‘Gloria’, ‘Aelita’, ‘Lada’, ‘Halleya’, ‘Zalenokvitkova 90’, ‘Kara-Dah’ etc. Local samples are especially valuable as the source of resistance against abiotic and biotic environmental factors and quality of the product.