Under conditions of pronounced dynamic climate change, the scope of phenological data is constantly expanding and increasingly extends beyond local regions. For the international integration of phenological research, a standardized description of the stages of plant development and their identical coding is used – the BBCH scale (Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und CHemische Industrie). Phenophases of seasonal development, according to BBCH, are already unified for many different in origin, nature of ecology, and economic use of plants of common and little-known species and crops, including fruit. According to the BBCH scale, we described the seasonal stages of development of 23 cultivars of Cornus mas L. selection gene pool of the M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, genotypes of C. officinalis Siebold & Zucc., nine genotypes of C. sessilis Torr. ex Durand, as well as three genotypes of the artificial hybrid from crossing C. officinalis × C. mas. Phenological monitoring was carried out in NBG (Ukraine) two or three times a week for three seasons (2018–2020) from the beginning of vegetation (bud development) to November and the beginning of winter dormancy. In the studied species of the subgenus Cornus, as in some other stone fruit plants, there are eight of the ten main stages of seasonal development. In all studied species and cultivars of dogwood at the beginning of the growing season generative buds in their development significantly ahead of vegetative and plants begin seasonal development from the development of inflorescences and flowering (principal growth stage 5 and principal growth stage 6, respectively). Different species and varieties differ in the calendar dates of onset and duration of certain major stages of development. The obtained data are important for further studies of adaptive capabilities of Cornus species and cultivars in different climatic conditions, for practical use of genetic resources of studied Cornus species and cultivars, as well as for the introduction of little-known Cornus species and their use in agricultural production, pharmacology, ornamental and landscape gardens.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2021 Svitlana Klymenko, Antonina Ilyinska